Bibliography of material on Decimal Arithmetic – by category think 10

This collection of references forms a bibliography of Decimal Arithmetic, with the emphasis on computer implementations of arithmetic.

This bibliography lists the papers I collected when researching decimal arithmetic through 2008. For a more extensive floating-point bibliography, including papers since that date, I commend Norbert Juffa and Nelson Beebe’s fparith collection at the University of Utah (search for ‘decimal’).  fparith is available in a variety of formats.

For general background on why decimal arithmetic is important, a decimal FAQ, decimal arithmetic specifications and testcases, and other World Wide Web links, please see the General Decimal Arithmetic pages.

This collection is categorized as follows (an alphabetic list by first author and a list sorted by year of publication are also available):

b. Choice of base (binary or decimal?)
c. Conversions (to and from binary)
f. Floating-point (decimal)
h. Hardware (circuits and arithmetic units)
m. Miscellaneous (decimal-related)
o. Operations and Elementary Functions (algorithms and designs)
p. Performance (execution efficiency)
q. Requirements (for decimal arithmetic)
r. Representations (for decimal numbers)
s. Standards and Specifications (for decimal numbers, datatypes, and products)
v. Variable precision (decimal)

Many references appear in more than one category. For books, and papers with no formal abstract, the Abstract material is derived from an introductory section or (occasionally, for books only) back cover matter. Omitted material is indicated by ellipses (...).

Please send any comments, corrections, or additions to Mike Cowlishaw,

Some elements Copyright © IBM Corporation, 2002, 2009. All rights reserved.