Tollos – tollosUtil.c  
Libraries
Background

tollosUtil.c – useful macros and functions for Tollos
The macros are defined in tollosUtil.h, and are:
abs(x) – return the absolute value of x deg2rad(d) – degrees to radians iswap(x,y) – swap the values of the ints x and y using XOR max(a,b) – return the larger of x and y min(a,b) – return the smaller of x and y rad2deg(r) – radians to degrees signum(x) – return the sign of x (−1, 0, or 1) The functions have various purposes.
byte2hex – convert a byte to two hex chars
void byte2hex(byte b, char *hex, flag upper);
b – byte to convert hex – points to where ASCII bytes should go upper – 1 to use ABCDEF, 0 for abcdef This writes only the two characters; no terminating zero char is added. No error is possible. fastrand – return a random number in the range 0 to n−1
int fastrand(uint n, uint *seed);
n – defines the random number range seed – static or persistent seed
returns the pseudorandom number n should be <30,000,000; the seed is provided by the caller initially but should not then be altered by the caller. This uses the conventional X(n+1)=mod((A*X(n) + C),M) as used in the Rexx function package, but without some refinements. The values for A and M are from the table in D.E.Knuth’s book, “Seminumerical Algorithms”, AddisonWesley, 1981, page 102 (section 3.3.2). These particular values are attributed to Lavaux and Janssens.
hex2byte – convert two hexadecimal characters to a byte
int hex2byte(char *hex, byte *b);
hex – points to two ASCII bytes b – points to byte which will receive the converted hexadecimal; set to 0x00 if error
returns 0 if OK, −1 if error This accepts both uppercase and lowercase A>F and a>f. isqrtg – return the square root of an int, with guess
int isqrtg(int num, int guess);
num – the number to square root guess – is the number to converge from (e.g., last similar result); if < 1, isqrtg will make the first guess
returns the integer square root of num, such that result*result < num; if num is less than zero then 0 is returned Note: the maximum input value is 2**31−1 (2147483647) hence the maximum possible returned value is 46340. i2str – layout an integer as a string
int i2str(char *string, int num, int len);
string – where to layout the integer num – the integer to lay out (not 0x80000000) len – width of the field (string) to lay out into
returns 0 if OK, 1 if overflow (does not fit) This writes num rightaligned and signed in the string field. No terminating zero char is written. nop – do nothing with an int
int nop(int i);
i – an integer
returns i This is used for placating compilers when parameters are intentionally or temporarily unused. streq – caseless string compare
int streq(const char *char1, const char *char2);
char1 – first string to compare char2 – second string
returns 1 if the strings caselesscompare equal, 0 otherwise If both strings are empty they are equal. strf – a reentrant mini printf to send a formatted string
int strf(putter putC, const char *format, va_list args);
putC – the function to which to send formatted characters format – format and data string args – list of other arguments as required
returns the number (count) of characters sent The following format indicators are supported:
%% – ‘%’ %c – single char %d, i – signed int %m – minidec decimal number [iff MINIDEC is defined] %s – string %u – unsigned int %x, X – hexadecimal %\n – LF only (otherwise \n becomes CRLF) The five printf format flags (+  0 # and space) are supported for all formats as in C99 (e.g., # only affects ‘x’, here). The ‘h’, ‘l’, and ‘L’ modifiers are not supported. Field width (e.g., %10i, %08x) is supported for all formats. Field precision (e.g., %5.7i) is not supported; for decimals, use Quantize on a number to set its ‘precision’. A \n in the string is expanded to \r\n unless preceded by %. Almost no error checking is carried out, so, for example, the flags and field width can be used even if the format character is not one of those listed; the format character then appears in the output. 
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