Here (below the horizontal rule) is the markup used for the sample reference
(with a blank on the start of each line which prevents
it being formatted here).
See the References markup page
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of the tags, etc.
[title]Decimal Floating-Point: Algorism for Computers
[author]Cowlishaw, Michael F.
[in]Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Symposium on Computer Arithmetic
Decimal floating-point justification and new combined arithmetic rules.
Decimal arithmetic is the norm in human calculations, and
human-centric applications must use a decimal floating-point
arithmetic to achieve the same results.
Initial benchmarks indicate that some applications spend 50% to 90% of
their time in decimal processing, because software decimal arithmetic
suffers a 100× to 1000× performance penalty over hardware.
The need for decimal floating-point in hardware is urgent.
Existing designs, however, either fail to conform to modern standards
or are incompatible with the established rules of decimal arithmetic.
This paper introduces a new approach to decimal floating-point which
not only provides the strict results which are necessary for
commercial applications but also meets the constraints and
requirements of the IEEE 854 standard.
A hardware implementation of this arithmetic is in development, and it
is expected that this will significantly accelerate a wide variety of
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